In The Laws of the Game 2008/2009, Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) addresses both the physical qualities of the ball and what to do if a game ball becomes defective. After more than 100 years as an international governing body of association football, they seem to be quite clear on the rules.
Law 2. The Ball
Qualities and Measurements
The ball is:
• made of leather or other suitable material
• of a circumference of not more than 70 cm (28 ins) and not less than 68 cm (27 ins)
• not more than 450 g (16 oz) and not less than 410 g (14 oz) in weight at the start of the match
• of a pressure equal to 0.6 – 1.1 atmosphere (600 – 1,100 g/cm2) at sea level (8.5 lbs/sq in – 15.6 lbs/sq in)
Replacement of a Defective Ball
If the ball bursts or becomes defective during the course of a match:
• the match is stopped
• the match is restarted by dropping the replacement ball at the place where the original ball became defective, unless play was stopped inside the goal area, in which case the referee drops the replacement ball on the goal area line parallel to the goal line at the point nearest to where the original ball was located when play was stopped
If the ball bursts or becomes defective whilst not in play at a kick-off, goal kick, corner kick, free kick, penalty kick or throw-in:
• the match is restarted accordingly
The ball may not be changed during the match without the authority of the referee.
Photo – motherboard.vice.com/read/the-technology-of-the-world-cup-football